Enter terms What is a systematic review? A systematic review summarises the results of available carefully designed healthcare studies controlled trials and provides a high level of evidence on the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. Judgments may be made about the evidence and inform recommendations for healthcare.
Characteristics[ edit ] A systematic review aims to provide a complete, exhaustive summary of current literature relevant to a research question. The first step in conducting a systematic review is to create a structured question to guide the review.
The Methodology section of a systematic review will list all of the databases and citation indexes that were searched such as Web of ScienceEmbaseand PubMed and any individual journals that were searched.
The titles and abstracts of identified articles are checked against pre-determined criteria for eligibility and relevance to form an inclusion set.
This set will relate back to the research problem.
Each included study may be assigned an objective assessment of methodological quality preferably by using methods conforming to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses PRISMA statement the current guideline  or the high quality standards of Cochrane. An additional rater may be consulted to resolve any scoring differences between raters.
Groups like the Campbell Collaboration are promoting the use of systematic reviews in policy-making beyond just healthcare.
How to write an introduction and methods of a systematic review of literature Table: Review of background/introduction part of systematic reviews published by Cochrane review from the list of top 50 most-accessed abstracts of systematic reviews in past 3 months. by Jeff Hume-Pratuch. Dear Style Experts, How should I format a reference for an article from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews? I have the names of the authors, the date and the title of the topic; however, there is no journal as such. have the intention to write a Cochrane systematic review, i.e. have a research question but did not contact any review group yet; have registered a title of a Cochrane review and would like to start writing the protocol; are working on a protocol for a Cochrane review and want to learn more on this;.
A systematic review uses an objective and transparent approach for research synthesis, with the aim of minimizing bias. While many systematic reviews are based on an explicit quantitative meta-analysis of available data, there are also qualitative reviews which adhere to standards for gathering, analyzing and reporting evidence.
Defining a question and agreeing an objective method. For example, only selecting research that is good quality and answers the defined question. This can include how the research was done often called the method or 'intervention'who participated in the research including how many peoplehow it was paid for for example funding sources and what happened the outcomes.
This combination of data can be visualised using a blobbogram also called a forest plot. Because this combined result uses data from more sources than just one data set, it's considered more reliable and better evidence, as the more data there is, the more confident we can be of conclusions. Research fields[ edit ] Medicine and biology[ edit ] The Cochrane is a group of over 37, specialists in healthcare who systematically review randomised trials of the effects of prevention, treatments and rehabilitation as well as health systems interventions.
When appropriate, they also include the results of other types of research. Diagnostic test accuracy reviews assess how well a diagnostic test performs in diagnosing and detecting a particular disease. Methodology reviews address issues relevant to how systematic reviews and clinical trials are conducted and reported.
Qualitative reviews synthesize qualitative and quantitative evidence to address questions on aspects other than effectiveness. Overviews of Systematic Reviews OoRs are a new type of study in order to compile multiple evidence from systematic reviews into a single document that is accessible and useful to serve as a friendly front end for the Cochrane Collaboration with regard to healthcare decision-making.
The Cochrane Collaboration provides a handbook for systematic reviewers of interventions which "provides guidance to authors for the preparation of Cochrane Intervention reviews. The Campbell Collaboration "helps people make well-informed decisions by preparing, maintaining and disseminating systematic reviews in education, crime and justice, social welfare and international development.
The Campbell Collaboration was created in and the inaugural meeting in Philadelphia, USA, attracted 85 participants from 13 countries.
Early attempts to transfer the procedures from medicine to business research have been made by Tranfield et al. Based on the experiences they have made in their own discipline, these authors have adapted the methodological steps and developed a standard procedure for conducting systematic literature reviews in business and economics.
They proposed several solutions, including limiting studies in meta-analyses and reviews to registered clinical trials, requiring that original data be made available for statistical checking, paying greater attention to sample size estimates, and eliminating dependence on only published data.
Some of these difficulties were noted early on as described by Altman:Cochrane, previously known as the Cochrane Collaboration, was founded in under the leadership of Iain Chalmers. It was developed in response to Archie Cochrane's call for up-to-date, systematic reviews of all relevant randomized controlled trials of health care.
The most valuable resource for conducting and writing systematic reviews is the free, online Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Cochrane also provides resources on reviews of diagnostic studies.
|Systematic Review Part I: Writing the protocol (1 day course) | Cochrane Belgium||History[ edit ] Cochrane, previously known as the Cochrane Collaboration, was founded in under the leadership of Iain Chalmers. The Cochrane logo represents a meta-analysis of data from seven randomised controlled trials RCTscomparing one health care treatment with a placebo in a blobbogram or forest plot.|
|Why Do a Systematic Review?||Writing a systematic review following Cochrane methods Introduction This three-day workshop is designed for authors of intervention reviews who wish to follow Cochrane methods. The workshop provides authors with a comprehensive overview of the methods required to write a protocol and get started on the review.|
|Cochrane News||Approaches[ edit ] In general, two types of evidence can be distinguished when performing a meta-analysis:|
|What is a systematic review?||Search our Plain Language Summaries of health evidence:|
A Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Studies is being created. Review Manager 5 (RevMan 5) is the software used for preparing and maintaining Cochrane Reviews.
RevMan facilitates preparation of protocols and full reviews, including text, characteristics of studies, comparison tables, and study data. Part of the Cochrane Interactive Learning course on Conducting an Intervention Review, this module introduces you to what systematic reviews are and why they are useful.
This module describes the various types and preferred format of review questions, and outlines the process of conducting systematic reviews.
by Jeff Hume-Pratuch. Dear Style Experts, How should I format a reference for an article from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews? I have the names of the authors, the date and the title of the topic; however, there is no journal as such. History.
The historical roots of meta-analysis can be traced back to 17th century studies of astronomy, while a paper published in by the statistician Karl Pearson in the British Medical Journal which collated data from several studies of typhoid inoculation is seen as the first time a meta-analytic approach was used to aggregate the outcomes of multiple clinical studies.