Life Cycle or Carbon Footprint of Plastic Bags Plastic bags are regarded as one of the most common items in daily life in the modern society. These products continue to be common in everyday life despite emerging concerns across many cities worldwide concerning their probable environmental impact.
The Tragedy of the Commons Science 13, December At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, J. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation.
An implicit and almost universal assumption of discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution.
A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of morality.
In our day though not in earlier times technical solutions are always welcome. Because of previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the solution to the problem was not to be found in the natural sciences.
They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, "It is our considered professional judgment Rather, the concern here is with the important concept of a class of human problems which can be called "no technical solution problems," and more specifically, with the identification and discussion of one of these.
It is easy to show that the class is not a null class. Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the problem, "How can I win the game of tick-tack-toe? Put another way, there is no "technical solution" to the problem.
I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word "win. Every way in which I "win" involves, in some sense, an abandonment of the game, as we intuitively understand it. I can also, of course, openly abandon the game -- refuse to play it.
This is what most adults do. The class of "no technical solution problems" has members. My thesis is that the "population problem," as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class.
How it is conventionally conceived needs some comment. It is fair to say that most people who anguish over the population problem are trying to find a way to avoid the evils of overpopulation without relinquishing any of the privileges they now enjoy.
They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat will solve the problem -- technologically. I try to show here that the solution they seek cannot be found. The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the game of tick-tack-toe.
What Shall We Maximize? Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to grow "geometrically," or, as we would now say, exponentially.
In a finite world this means that the per-capita share of the world's goods must decrease. Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for the view that the world is infinite or that we do not know that it is not.webkandii.com is the place to go to get the answers you need and to ask the questions you want.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec The protection of water resources is ruled by National Decree /89 modified in part by Decree /92 on waste effluents discharged into sewage systems or water coursesâ€¦The territory of application is the City of Buenos Aires and .
Rex Research was established in by Robert A. Nelson to archive and distribute " InFolios " -- Information Folios -- of collected Articles about suppressed, dormant, or emerging Sciences, Technologies, Inventions, Theories, Therapies, & other Alternatives that offer real Hope & Choices to help Liberate Humanity from its Stupidity and the evile Pornocracy of Psychopaths.
Reusable shopping bags made from renewable materials conserve resources by replacing paper and plastic bags. Reusable bags are convenient and come in a variety of sizes, styles and materials.
When not in use, some reusable bags can be rolled or folded small enough to fit easily into a pocket.
Pollution in China is one aspect of the broader topic of environmental issues in webkandii.coms forms of pollution have increased as China has industrialised, which has caused widespread environmental and health problems..
China will either shut down or curtail operations at dozens of steel plants from November , over the next five months under an aggressive action plan to reduce winter.
Writer of the leading blog on plastic-free living, My Plastic-Free Life, author Beth Terry provides personal anecdotes, stats about the environmental and .