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But not everything expressed in words—even when organized and written down—is counted as literature. Those writings that are primarily informative—technical, scholarly, journalistic—would be excluded from the rank of literature by most, though not all, critics.
Certain forms of writing, however, are universally regarded as belonging to literature as an art. Individual attempts within these forms are said to succeed if they possess something called artistic merit and to fail if they do not. The nature of artistic merit is less easy to define than to recognize.
The writer need not even pursue it to attain it. On the contrary, a scientific exposition might be of great literary value and a pedestrian poem of none at all. The purest or, at least, the most intense literary form is the lyric poem, and after it comes elegiac, epic, dramatic, narrative, and expository verse.
Most theories of literary criticism base themselves on an analysis of poetrybecause the aesthetic problems of literature are there presented in their simplest and purest form.
Poetry that fails as literature is not called poetry at all but verse. The Greeks thought of history as one of the seven arts, inspired by a goddess, the muse Clio. The essay was once written deliberately as a piece of literature: Today most essays are written as expository, informative journalismalthough there are still essayists in the great tradition who think of themselves as artists.
Now, as in the past, some of the greatest essayists are critics of literature, drama, and the arts. Some examples of this biographical literature were written with posterity in mind, others with no thought of their being read by anyone but the writer. Some are in a highly polished literary style; others, couched in a privately evolved language, win their standing as literature because of their cogency, insight, depth, and scope.
Many works of philosophy are classed as literature. The Dialogues of Plato 4th century bc are written with great narrative skill and in the finest prose; the Meditations of the 2nd-century Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius are a collection of apparently random thoughts, and the Greek in which they are written is eccentric.
Yet both are classed as literature, while the speculations of other philosophers, ancient and modern, are not. Certain scientific works endure as literature long after their scientific content has become outdated. This is particularly true of books of natural history, where the element of personal observation is of special importance.
Oratorythe art of persuasion, was long considered a great literary art.
The oratory of the American Indianfor instance, is famous, while in Classical Greece, Polymnia was the muse sacred to poetry and oratory. Today, however, oratory is more usually thought of as a craft than as an art.
Most critics would not admit advertising copywriting, purely commercial fiction, or cinema and television scripts as accepted forms of literary expression, although others would hotly dispute their exclusion.
Expert Reviewed. How to Quote and Cite a Poem in an Essay Using MLA Format. Three Parts: Quoting from Poems in an Essay Citing Poems in an Essay Citing Poems in a Works Cited Community Q&A Navigating the MLA Handbook can be pretty overwhelming; there are so many rules that regulate the way we can quote and cite . These essays are not intended to replace library research. They are here to show you what others think about a given subject, and to perhaps spark an interest or an idea in you. Edgar Allan Poe (), American poet, critic, short story writer, and author of such macabre works as “The Fall of the House of Usher” (); I looked upon the scene before me - upon the mere house, and the simple landscape features of the domain - upon the bleak walls - upon the vacant eye-like windows - upon a few rank sedges - and upon a few white trunks of decayed trees - with.
The test in individual cases would seem to be one of enduring satisfaction and, of course, truth. Indeed, it becomes more and more difficult to categorize literature, for in modern civilization words are everywhere.
Man is subject to a continuous flood of communication. Most of it is fugitive, but here and there—in high-level journalism, in television, in the cinema, in commercial fiction, in westerns and detective stories, and in plain, expository prose—some writing, almost by accident, achieves an aesthetic satisfaction, a depth and relevance that entitle it to stand with other examples of the art of literature.Expert Reviewed.
How to Quote and Cite a Poem in an Essay Using MLA Format. Three Parts: Quoting from Poems in an Essay Citing Poems in an Essay Citing Poems in a Works Cited Community Q&A Navigating the MLA Handbook can be pretty overwhelming; there are so many rules that regulate the way we can quote and cite .
How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay The traditional essay tips won't work with compare and contrast paper. We have gathered the best ideas online to share with webkandii.com you write such assignment for the first time in your school or college life, read information from us..
You need to keep in mind the most common writing mistakes school and college students make to avoid them. Its always interesting to read the compilation of Bushnells columns that inspired the seminal tv show of the late 90s on HBO.
While there are certainly a variety of similarities this is grittier and a bit more honest and in your face than the tv show.
THE DEPARTMENT. Columbia's Department of English and Comparative Literature has played a significant role in the history of literary study in the United States and abroad since its inception.
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