Generally, computer networking tools are software programs that network engineers can use to make their jobs easier.
Networking Primer Network Topologies The term "network topology" refers to the layout of a network. Due to the specific nature of computer network technology, networks must be arranged in a particular way in order to work properly.
Because of these factors, network topologies are further subdivided into two categories: Physical Topologies The physical topology of a LAN refers to the actual physical organization of the computers on the network and the subsequent guided transmission media connections.
Physical topologies vary depending on cost and functionality. We will discuss the three most common physical topologies, including their advantages and disadvantages. Physical Bus The simplest form of a physical bus topology consists of a trunk main cable with only two end points.
When the trunk cable is installed, it is run from area to area and device to device—close enough to each device so that all devices can be connected to it with short drop cables and T-connectors.
The principal advantage of this topology is cost: It is also easy to expand. This simple "one wire, two ends" physical bus topology is illustrated in Figure Physical bus topology Distributed Bus A more complex form of the physical bus topology is the distributed bus. In the distributed bus, the trunk cable starts at what is called a "root" or "head end", and branches at various points along the way.
Unlike the simple bus topology described above, this variation uses a trunk cable with more than two end points. Where the trunk cable branches, the division is made by means of a simple connector.
This topology is susceptible to bottlenecking and single-point failure. The distributed bus topology is illustrated in Figure Distributed bus topology Physical Star The simplest form of the physical star topology consists of multiple cables—one for each network device—attached to a single, central connection device.
In even a simple physical star topology, the actual layout of the transmission media need not form a recognizable star pattern; the only required physical characteristic is that each network device be connected by its own cable to the central connection point.
Like the distributed bus topology, this topology is vulnerable to single-point failure and bottlenecking. The simplest form of the physical star topology is illustrated in Figure Physical star topology The distributed star topology, illustrated in Figure 13, is a more complex form of the physical star topology, with multiple central connection points connected to form a string of stars.
Distributed star topology Physical Star-Wired Ring In the star-wired ring physical topology, individual devices are connected to a central hub, just as they are in a star or distributed star network.
However, within each hub the physical connections form a ring. Where multiple hubs are used, the ring in each hub is opened, leaving two ends. Each open end is connected to an open end of some other hub each to a different hubso that the entire network cable forms one physical ring. Physical star-wired ring topology In the star-wired ring physical topology, the hubs are "intelligent".
If the physical ring is somehow broken, each hub is able to close the physical circuit at any point in its internal ring, so that the ring is restored.
Refer to details shown in Figure 14, Hub A, to see how this works. Currently, the star topology and its derivatives are preferred by most network designers and installers because these topologies make it simple to add network devices anywhere on the network.
In most cases, you can simply install one new cable between the central connection point and the desired location of the new network device without moving or adding to a trunk cable or making the network unavailable for use by other stations.
However, the star topology and its derivatives are also susceptible to bottlenecking and single-point failure; the latter is often remedied by providing a redundant backup of the hub node. Tree Topology Also called a "hierarchical" or "star of stars" topology, tree topology is a combination of bus and star topologies.
Nodes are connected in groups of star-configured workstations that branch out from a single "root", as shown in Figure The root node usually controls the network and sometimes network traffic flow.
This topology is easy to extend: It also is easy to control because the root provides centralized management and monitoring. The principal disadvantage is obvious: Also, the tree topology is difficult to configure, wire, and maintain, especially in extensive networks.
The tree topology is centrally controlled, making it easy to manage but highly vulnerable to single-point failure.Controller Area Network (CAN) Overview. complexity, and weight. CAN, a high-integrity serial bus system for networking intelligent devices, emerged as the standard in-vehicle network.
The automotive industry quickly adopted CAN and, in , it became the international standard known as ISO National Instruments CAN Tools. In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the physical layer or layer 1 is the first and lowest layer.
This layer may be implemented by a PHY chip. The physical layer consists of the electronic circuit transmission technologies of a network. Networking Primer Network Topologies. Because of these factors, network topologies are further subdivided into two categories: physical topologies and logical topologies.
The most obvious hardware difference is the absence of wiring, which provides several advantages, not the least of which are lower cost and greater flexibility and. Physical security is a vital part of any security plan and is fundamental to all security efforts--without it, information security, software security, user access security, and network security are considerably more difficult, if not impossible, to initiate.
Block connectors, structured media centers, and Block wiring systems Wiring Systems Cables & termination, testers, cleaners, enclosures & more Fiber Optic Control multiple network devices by linking to a single console Network Switches.
Speaking of installation, we've got all-in-one network hardware tool kits to help you set up your network, ID tags to mark your cables, and testers to make sure everything is in .