Organized Crime in the U. Forum on Crime and Society Vol. Introduction The subject of this paper is the conceptual history of organized crime in the United States and in Germany 1.
In part this is because, unlike in the case of homicide or robbery or many other types of offenses, organized crime is a conceptual rather than a legal category. The issue of definition is an important one, however, since how we define organized crime has very important implications for how we attempt to explain it and for the steps we take as a society to prevent or control it.
Of course, all crime is organized to some degree. The criminal acts of juvenile delinquents, a small group of minor thieves, or a three-person team of con artists suggest at least minimal levels of social organization.
Yet we do not usually intend the term "organized crime" to include such activities or groups.
All crimes and criminals are located along a continuum of organizational sophistication that identifies differences with respect to factors such as the division of labor or stability over time. The importation, preparation, distribution, and sale of illegal drugs is a more organized crime than is a simple mugging; and a group of criminals who steal cars, modify them, and then ship them for sale outside of the United States requires more organization than a group of juveniles who commit the occasional act of convenience store theft.
By implication, if not more explicitly, the term "organized crime" refers to groups and acts at the high rather than the low end of any continuum of organizational sophistication.
Unfortunately, the tendency to use the term "organized crime" to refer simultaneously to a type of behavior and a type of person often leads to circular reasoning.
For instance, the phrase "'organized crime' is involved in narcotics distribution in New York " is tautological because narcotics distribution is an organized crime and whoever is involved in it is by definition in organized crime.
Most typically, organized crime is defined in ways that emphasize high levels of cooperation among groups of professional criminals. In this way, the category organized crime is viewed as synonymous with the category organized criminals. In popular parlance, for instance, organized crime has been equated with "the mob," "the Mafia " or "The Syndicate.
Thus, they contend, there is more to organized crime than associations of professional criminals. There are victims, customers, regulators, suppliers, competitors, and innocent bystanders. Viewed this way, the criminal association is merely one component in a much more complex web of interrelationships that comprise organized crime.
Moreover, the configurations among these various elements are always changing and these changes affect the ways in which any particular component including the criminal association is organized. For these writers, organized crime is more usefully conceptualized as a set of market relationships rather than as criminal associations or secret societies.
This position reflects the view that many of the kinds of activities with which we customarily associate organized crime—drug dealing, loan-sharking, gambling, the infiltration of legitimate business—are market activities and, therefore, the kinds of questions we need to ask about organized crime are the same kinds of questions we would need to ask about any kind of business.
How are goods marketed? How are contractual obligations enforced? What sorts of relationships link criminal entrepreneurs to the general public as well as to those who seek to use state power to regulate their activities?
Thus, organized crime involves an ongoing criminal conspiracy, ordered around market relationships that involve victims, offenders, customers, and corrupt officials among others.CHAPTER 2 THEORIES OF ORGANIZED CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR 61 commission exists whose function is to arbitrate disputes between families and assign territory (discussed later in the chapter).
Ethnicity is a key to the alien conspiracy theory of the organized crime. Organized crime consists of the participation of persons and groups of persons (organized either formally or informally) in transactions characterized by: (1) An intent to commit, or the actual commission of, substantive crimes; (2) A conspiracy to execute these crimes; (3) A persistence of this conspiracy through time (at least one year) or.
A 5 page research paper that discusses 2 organized crime groups.
The Cali Cartel of Colombia, a highly successful drug trafficking organization, is, in many ways, similar to La Cosa Nostra (American organized crime) in both its history and structure.
This paper contrasts and compares these two crime organizations. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Biological theories of crime attempt to explain behaviors contrary to societal expectations through examination of individual characteristics. These theories are categorized within a paradigm called positivism (also known as determinism), which asserts that behaviors, including law-violating behaviors, are determined by factors largely beyond individual control.
Compare and contrast at least 2 definitions and 8 attributes of organized crime and provide a supporting explanation of each relating them to organized crime's foundations. • How organized crime gained a foothold in the United States.
• How organized crime groups sought to influence government. Hells Angels an Organized Crime GroupIn , one of the first non-mafia organized crime groups was formed on the West Coast of the United States called the Hells Angels.
This organized crime group is a motorcycle club that has thousands of members and 3/5(3).